We supply an HTTPS certificate for all websites that are subdomains of
pythonanywhere.com -- so your website at yourusername
handles HTTPS by default. But if you create a website with a custom domain, you
need to get a certificate. This is because only the owner of a domain can create
a certificate for it, to stop people from (say) creating certs for
If you're just getting started, we recommend you use Let's Encrypt -- they're the easiest way to get a certificate for your domain. But their certificates need to be renewed every three months or so, and there are some restrictions on the type of certificate they support, so later on you might need to get a certificate from a commercial provider like GoDaddy. This page explains how that works.
In brief, if you already understand how certificates work
You need two files, saved into your file storage on PythonAnywhere. The exact location doesn't matter.
- The Private Key, which should be unencrypted, ie it should start with
----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY(or
BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY)
- The Combined Certificate, which consists of your certificate and the certificate chain sent to you by your vendor. It should have several BEGIN/END CERTICATE blocks.
Once you have those sorted, go down to the "Installing the certificate" section further down this page.
Detailed instructions, for people who are new to all this
We (PythonAnywhere) don't sell certificates ourselves, so the first thing is to identify someone who will provide you with a certificate -- an SSL certificate vendor. You may find that your domain name registrar provides them (GoDaddy and Namecheap certainly do), so if you've found their customer service to be good, you might want to use them.
To get the certificate, you'll need to send them a text file called a "Certificate Signing Request" (CSR), which is basically an encoded representation of a request to a certificate-issuing organisation (a "Certification Authority", or CA -- your certificate vendor may be a CA themselves, or they may resell certificates from a CA) saying "please give me a SSL certificate for the following domain, signed by yourselves, that can only be unlocked using my private key." And in order to generate one of those, you'll need to generate a private cryptographic key.
Here are detailed instructions on how to do that on PythonAnywhere.
- From a Bash console on PythonAnywhere, generate the private key and CSR using the openssl command, like this (all on one line, replacing yourdomain.com appropriately):
openssl req -new -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout yourdomain.com.key -out yourdomain.com.csr
- When the command asks you questions, you need to answer like this:
- Common name: your site's hostname, eg. www.yourdomain.com The www. is important; a certificate for yourdomain.com won't work on www.yourdomain.com, and vice versa, so make sure you enter the one you use for your website.
- Organisation: your business or other organisation name.
- Organisation unit: your department -- just your organisation name again if you prefer.
- City or locality: your city
- State or province: as you'd expect. Leave blank if not applicable
- Country: your two-letter ISO country code as per this Wikipedia page
- When it asks you for a passphrase, leave it blank.
- Next, you need to provide the contents of the CSR (yourdomain.com.csr -- not the key!) to your certificate vendor. They will generate the certificate for you, or will get the CA to do so on their behalf, and send it back to you.
- The certificate (which you should save on PythonAnywhere as yourdomain.com.cert) will be a text file starting with something like
BEGIN CERTIFICATE(with some dashes on either side), then some encoded stuff, then
END CERTIFICATE(again, with dashes). It's an encoded proof that the CA have certified that the person who owns the private key (the yourdomain.com.key file, which they haven't seen, but which was used to sign the CSR they did receive) definitely is you.
- Because not all browsers necessarily trust your particular CA to certify people, you also often need a "certificate chain" AKA a "certificate bundle", which connects your certificate with someone who is trusted by all browsers. This is yet another text file, with several certificates in it. The certificate vendor should send it to you alongside your own certificate. You can tell the difference between the two because your certificate will just have one "BEGIN/END" bit in it, while the chain will probably have several. (Some CAs are able to offer certificates that are trusted directly. They tend to be the most expensive ones. Check with your certificate vendor if you're unsure.)
- Once you have the certificate and the chain, create a new file which has your certificate at the top, then the chain afterwards. (You may have to add a newline so that you don't get the END line of your certificate on the same line as the BEGIN for the first line of the chain.) Save that as yourdomain.com.combined.cert
- Get your private key: This is the private key that you would have created as part of the process of generating the CSR. You will need to give it to us unencrypted, so make sure that the key starts with the line
-----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----. if you see something like
Proc-Type: 4,ENCRYPTEDthen it's encrypted and you need to decrypt it before we can use it:
openssl rsa -in server.key.encrypted -out server.key
Installing the certificate
Once you've got the certificate and the key, and prepared your combined certificate file, you need to install it -- that is, let the PythonAnywhere web-serving system know that it should use your certificate and key for your site.
Enable the PythonAnywhere API
The first step to do that is to make sure you have an API token set up for your account; go to the "Account" page and then click the "API token" tab. If you see this:
...then you're all set. If, however, you see this:
...then you need to click the button to generate a key.
Install the PythonAnywhere helper scripts
Start a new Bash console (old ones won't have API access) and run this command to install the PythonAnywhere helper scripts:
pip3.6 install --user --upgrade pythonanywhere
(If you're on our "classic" image and don't have Python 3.6 available, you can use pip3.5 instead.)
Install the certificate
To install the certificate, just run the following PythonAnywhere helper script (replacing www.yourdomain.com with your actual domain name and adjusting the paths to point to the combined certificate and private key):
pa_install_webapp_ssl.py www.yourdomain.com /home/yourusername/something/combined-cert.pem /home/yourusername/something/private-key.pem
It should print out something like this:
< Setting up SSL for www.yourdomain.com via API > \ ~<:>>>>>>>>> < Reloading www.yourdomain.com via API > \ ~<:>>>>>>>>> _________________________________________________________________ / \ | That's all set up now :-) Your new certificate will expire | | on 12 November 2018, so shortly before then you should | | renew it and install the new certificate. | \ / ----------------------------------------------------------------- \ ~<:>>>>>>>>>
If you get any errors, just email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
You're all set! However, when your certificate expires (you can see that the script told you when that will happen) you'll need to renew it and then install the new certificate with the same command.
For some sites, you might not only want to offer an HTTPS connection to your users -- you might want to force all access to your site to go through HTTPS. Here's how to do that.